Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Perlis

By | March 9, 2018


Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Perlis

Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Perlis,below is Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Perlis
 

Movement in the State’s Constitution of Perlis, Malaysia

Abstract
In 19 th Century CE the term i s · la _ h · is used to denote ‘reform’ to perceive idealism of reformers, al-Afgh a _ n i _ , ‘Abduh and Rida and those who were influenced by them. They struggled to refine Muslim society and to call them back to Islam. The objective of this paper is to study factors of diffusion of the idealism in Perlis, Malaysia. Besides, it would indicate the role of the i s · l a _ h · movement in determining the notion of Perlis’s Constitution. Through researches in many documents as well as interviews the study found that the movement in Perlis emerged in the early 1920s CE to challenge the practice of the Sh a _ fi’ i _ madhhab (school of thought) in the state. The movement succeeded in challenging the strength of Kaum Tua (the Shafi’i adherents) and caused the closing of their pondok (learning centre). What was more important, the movement’s proposal to establish the doctrines of ahl al-sunnah wa-‘l-jama _ ‘ah without being subject to any particular madhhab to be the basis of the State’s structures gained the support of the Perlis Sovereign as well as the State Executive. Meanwhile, a King who would be appointed to govern the State should be a person who follows the doctrines. When compared with provisions of the other States in Malaysia it means that only Perlis has chosen to make an open rejection to the practice of taql i _ d of particular madhhab in the State’s religious administration. Therefore, it would be good to suggest that people should be given a wide opportunity to study, to accept and to practise any opinion that is in accordance with al-Qur’a _ n and al-Sunnah in order to show a great appreciation of the State’s doctrine.

Full-text

·Movement in the State’s Constitution of Perlis, Malaysia
Mohd. Nasir bin Abd. Hamid
Centre for Islamic Thought and Understanding (CITU)
Universiti Teknologi MARA
02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Tel: 60-3-017-477-1105 E-mail: mdnasir@perlis.uitm.edu.my
Che Latifah binti Ismail
Centre for Islamic Thought and Understanding (CITU)
Universiti Teknologi MARA
02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Tel: 60-3-012-493-9913 E-mail: chelatifah@perlis.uitm.edu.my
Kamaruzaman Jusoff (Corresponding Author)
Faculty of Forestry
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: 60-3-8946-7176 E-mail: kamaruz@putra.upm.edu.my
Abstract
In 19th Century CE the term is
·la
_
h
· is used to denote ‘reform’ to perceive idealism of reformers, al-Afgh
‘Abduh and Rida and those who were influenced by them. They struggled to refine Muslim society and to call them
back to Islam. The objective of this paper is to study factors of diffusion of the idealism in Perlis, Malaysia. Besides, it
would indicate the role of the is
· movement in determining the notion of Perlis’s Constitution. Through researches
in many documents as well as interviews the study found that the movement in Perlis emerged in the early 1920s CE to
challenge the practice of the Sh
a
_
fi‘ i
_
madhhab (school of thought) in the state. The movement succeeded in
challenging the strength of Kaum Tua (the Shafi’i adherents) and caused the closing of their pondok (learning centre).
What was more important, the movement’s proposal to establish the doctrines of ahl al-sunnah wa-’l-jama
_
‘ah without
being subject to any particular madhhab to be the basis of the State’s structures gained the support of the Perlis
Sovereign as well as the State Executive. Meanwhile, a King who would be appointed to govern the State should be a
person who follows the doctrines. When compared with provisions of the other States in Malaysia it means that only
Perlis has chosen to make an open rejection to the practice of taql i
_
d of particular madhhab in the State’s religious
administration. Therefore, it would be good to suggest that people should be given a wide opportunity to study, to
accept and to practise any opinion that is in accordance with al-Qur’a
_
n and al-Sunnah in order to show a great
appreciation of the State’s doctrine.
Keywords: Idealism of reformers, Factors of diffusion, Determining the notion, Sh
a
_
fi‘ i
_
madhhab
1. Introduction
In modern Arabic the term is
·la
_
h
· is used to denote ‘reform’ in a general sense. It is perceived as a function of the
historico-cultural process in modern Islam, a modern form of the salafiyya. It refers more expressly to the group that
emerged at the end of the 19th century in the doctrinal teachings of Jam
a
_
l al-D i
_
n al-Afgh
a
_
ni
_
(1254-1315
AH/1839-1897CE), Mu h
·ammad ‘Abduh (1266-1323AH/1849-1905CE) and in the writing of Mu h
·ammad Rash i
_
d
Rid{a< (1282-1354AH/1865-1935CE) as well as in the many Muslim authors who have been influenced by these
masters. For example, ‘Abd al-Qa<dir al-Maghribi (1284-1376AH/1867-1956CE) in Morocco and Shaykh Tahir
Journal of Politics and Law June, 2009
51
Jalaluddin (1286-1377AH/1869-1957CE) in Malaysia who made a very fertile contribution to is
·la
_
h
· in the both
countries. Those reformers struggled to refine Muslim society from superstition and call them back to the original
teachings of Islam. They want people to think in term of getting ahead, to justify opinions as better or worse and to
motivate themselves to utilize their natural surroundings (Donzel 1960. See also Britannica Encyclopedia 2007).
In order to fulfill these aims al-Afgh a
_
ni
_
insisted that the success of the aim necessitated the abolition of taql i
_
d.
(Note 1) He pointed out that the early ‘ulama
_
’ exercised the right of independent judgement but they had not exhausted
all the secrets of al-Qur’a
_
n. Thus, a new ijtiha
_
d was required to solve new issues and even to revise the previous
opinions, for the situation in that time did not conform to the current circumstances (Moazzam 1984). (Note 2)
Meanwhile, ‘Abduh regarded taql i
_
d as a disease which blinds the practitioners. In al-Man a
_
r, he blamed those who
commanded people to practice taql i
_
d without understanding and being satisfied with the view of the ‘ulama
_
’ (‘Abduh
& Rashid 1952). ‘Abduh argued that the principle of talf i
_
q (which implies that in any particular case one should
choose the best interpretation of the law befitting the circumstances whether it comes from one’s own legal code or not),
should be practiced especially by jurists. (Note 3) In his view, talf i
_
q was a systematic comparison of all four
madha
_
hib or even other jurists so as to get the best synthesis for the right judgement (Hourani 1962). Nevertheless,
Rash i
_
d Rid{a<, in this matter presented his own stand by calling every Muslim to entertain the rules of all four
madha
_
hib, or to accept any procedure of the four which was convenient to him/her. He thought that was a better way
to avoid the false innovations of ignorant men who deviated from Islamic teachings for their own glorification (Adams
1933). His concern was to minimize the questions of differences between Muslims so as to show Islam to be a religious
of unity. Therefore, he proposed a greater freedom for everyone to support what they agree upon and be tolerant of
differences (Badawi 1976. See also Sasi 1995).
2. The wind of is
·la
_
h
· in Malaysia
The wind of is
·la
_
h
·in the Middle-East blew across the ocean and caused the rising tide of is
·la
_
h
· in the Malay
Archipelago, in this case, Indonesia and Malaysia. Students from this area who had studied in the Arabic countries
brought back the spirit of al-Afghani and ‘Abduh, as well as the teaching of Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab
from Saudi Arabia to become the stimulus in motivating a reform movement in their society. In Indonesia, the is
·la
_
h
·
movement became aggressive in the early 19th Century CE when the three scholars Haji Miskin, Haji. Sumanik and
Haji. Piobang, well-known as the Paderi group who had studied in the Middle-East, came back to Minangkabau,
Sumatra (Othman & Badaruddin 1991). They began to direct their attacks against the deterioration in the society and
opposed some practices of the ‘a
_
dat ja
_
hiliyyah in Minangkabau, for example; drinking tuak (an alcoholic drink)
(Othman & Badaruddin.1991). They also warned people about the intensive Dutch exploitation in Indonesia (Ricklefs
1984).
At the end of the 19th century CE many people in Indonesia thought that it was impossible to challenge the forces of
Dutch colonialism or struggle for progress in other parts of Asia if they continued with their traditional activities to
uphold Islam. They became aware of the need for changes or reforms by digging up the treasures of Islam of the past
which had enabled their brethren of the Middle Ages to surpass the West (Noer 1973). In the meantime, some
opponents of the Paderi movement who had escaped from the Dutch attacks had been looking for a new base to
continue their struggle for reform (Othman & Badaruddin 1991).
By the time, Shaykh Tahir Jalaluddin from Bukit Tinggi, Minangkabau who cameback from Middle-East in 1317
AH/1899 CE decided to chose Singapore (in that time, Singapore was the Malaya’s constituency) as his field of
operation for reform. As a best friend of Rashid Rida and the follower of ‘Abduh he and some other friends who were
the members of the urban Malayo-Muslim community of Singapore and had extensive contacts with the Middle East,
such as Sayyid Shaykh Ahmad b. al-Hadi (1862-1934CE), Haji Abbas M. Taha (1885-1946CE) began to publish
al-Imam, a periodical which used ‘Abduh‘s nickname and followed the al-Mana
_
r model, in July 1324AH/1906CE, a
year after ‘Abduh’s death (Noer 1973).
Al-Ima
_
m was the first Malay radical publication formulating an intellectual stance in Malay society to build up
religious awareness for fast social and economic change (Abdullah 1992). Its aims were “to remind those who are
forgetful, arouse those who sleep, guide those who stray, and give a voice to those who speak with wisdom”. In order to
achieve these ideals it was firstly concerned with religion, “for religion is the proven cure for all the ills of our
community” (Roff, 967). It warned the Malay people that the main cause of the decline of Muslim glory is their
ignorance of their religion and inability to follow the commands of God and the Prophet (p.b.u.h). It indicated that a
correct sympathy with and resignation to the direction of Islam is “our only means of competing successfully with those
who now rule and lead us” (Roff 1967).
However, al-Imam reflected awareness that in order to achieve is
·la
_
h
·
, the practice of Islam among the Malays must
be free from customs and beliefs derived from a
_
dat, other religions and animism. So, in the article Tegoran (An
Address), translated from the Arabic of ‘Abduh, it reminded ‘ulama
_
of their responsibiliy to preach the truth, and
stress the need to return to al-Qur’a
_
n and al-Sunnah as well as to practice ijtih a
_
d rather than taql i
_
d buta (blind

Movement in the State’s Constitution of Perlis, Malaysia (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266529887_Movement_in_the_State’s_Constitution_of_Perlis_Malaysia [accessed Mar 09 2018].